“The Republic that we want”- Survey


The Republic that we want”- Survey


After 40 years under a dictatorship, Spain shyly started walking towards democracy. Looking at what we used to have, we achieved a lot; looking at all the way that remains ahead, we astonishingly realized that we were already starting to acquiesce in the minimums and almost had resigden to the “demo” (a sort of  simulation of democracy…) but now we are going for the “cracia”, for the power of the people.

No crown, no heir, democracy means people”.

The Republic

Republic comes from the latin term “res” thing, that is public, which belongs to the “populus” or people,  it means that the people holds the power, and they  temporary  delageate it on their representants. This is an essential difference betwen monarchical governments where the attribution of sovereign is lifelong and often, hereditary.

One essential characteristic of a  republican government  is the constitutionally stablished ,power divission into three different ones according to their specific functions: an administrative body, represented by the  Executive Power, a “law making one”, called Legislative Power and another one whose mission is applying those laws in the specific cases where their aprreciation is needed, the Judicial Power.

Other characteristics of the Republic, are:

  • All citizens are equal before the law .
  • The governors must be responsible before the people who chose them, for their acts of governance.
  • The need  that every act of governance is public (transparency); which means that those must not be secret, but expounded to the citizens so that these can be controlled.  

The essential pillars of the Republic

The three essential pillars of te Republic according to Aristotle are:

  • The power divission and its reciprocal control.
  • The political active participation  by the citizens. These means, thetransparency of every State act, the instruction on basic aspects of  politic culture  and the exigence of liabilities to the governers.
  • The representation of every social class inside the government institutions with equal attributions and prevalence of none.  (Access  to those judgeships must be restricted, and they will necessarely be collegiated according to the affected field, the magistrate must belong to the class he/she representates and be chosen exclusively through their vote).

It must be considered that for Aristote, the supreme aims of any form of government should be:

  • Freedom = Equality (“we only are free among equals)”
  • The  realization of justice and common good.
  • The full realization of human cognitive skills development (for which he judges necesary the fulfilment of the two prior points, following Socrates‘ essential concept [GOOD=TRUTH. According to which  good is equal to  truth and bad to ignorance ]
  • Out of this, we can deduce that if we are only free among equals there must not be a governing class, but every class must govern equally

Republic and Democracy

The term democracy comes from the ancient greek (dḗmos, which translates as “people”) and κράτος (krátos, which translates as “power”).

This way, republic is the governance of the law; while democracy means the governance of the people.

Thus, democracy admits gradation, meaning that there can be forms of government that are closer to the idea of Equality = Freedom; since laws are made for citizens and by citizens.  

Democracy’s basic definition: in order that a government can be considered minimally  democratic, it needs to have at least: male and female universal suffrage; free, competitive, recurring and correct ellections; more than one party; and more than one source of information.

In the sphere of the democracies that are above that minimum treshold, it is necessary to annalize how far they have gone or can go in the process of the finest fulfillment of the two main objectives of the ideal democracy: freedom and equality

A quality democracy is the one that develops satisfactorily the procedures designed to favor freedom and political and social equality, and whose public policies meet the demands of the citizens.”

Democratic Development: Political participation mechanisms

It’s not just about voting every 4 yearswe have to demand, we have to get involved, we have to supervise,  we have to compel that responsabilities are assumed, we have to be awake, we have to listen, debate, get informed, we have to “fight” for democracy!

These are some ways of direct participation, they are mechanisms of opinion and public ellection.

  • Popular initiative: The right given to the citizenship to present draft legislation proposals before the correspondant public institution.
  • Referendum: A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to eiter accept or reject a particular proposal or to revoke or not a norm already in force.
  • Popular consultation: The mechanism trough which the President, the Governor, the Major or other governing personality can ask a question about a general domain, about an issue of national or regional relevance, etc. to the citizens so that they can formally state their opinion.
  • Open cabildo: The public meeting of the district or municipal councils or local administrative boards where inhabitants can directly participate in order to debate matters of public interest for the comunity.
  • Impeachment : The political right by which citizens can remove a Governor or a Major from office.

         The survey will be published after the summer or once a significant sample is           obtained.  At the end of the survey, you must press the “finish survey” button to remain registered responses.  See abreviated list of related terms after the survey (Look below for more information)

Link to survey: http://cort.as/9gSv 


Abreviated list of related terms (links available):


                      WE DON’T WANT TO BE SUBJECTS, WE WANT TO BE  CITIZENS:                      WE CHOSE REPUBLIC.



Thank you very much for your participation!

Email: destinorepublicano@gmail.com

Twitter: @destinorepublic  





Demonstration In Madrid Against Monarchy 










Proclamas Republicanas:

 •Lo pide el pueblo, lo quiere la gente, referéndum monarquía y nueva constituyente!/    •Los Borbones confiscados, y sus millones pa´ los parados!/  •Ya llegó la hora, República Española!/  •Jaque mate, jaque mate, jaque mate!/  •Referéndum, referéndum, referéndum!/  •Con Urdangarín, la monarquía llega a su fin!/  •Ni corona ni herederos, la democracia somos el pueblo!/ •Democracia coronada, democracia envenenada!/  •Democracia coronada, democracia secuestrada!/  •Ola, Ola, Ola, República Española!/  •Basta de gorrones, fuera los  Borbones!/  •Bota, bota, bota, monarquía a la picota!/ •El clamor popular, República Federal!•  




Ley Partidos



28th May 2013
The Spanish society is concerned and shocked when it sees the deterioration of politics in this country. After 35 years of democracy, political parties are not working. According to every survey, citizens feel that politicians’ skills are below the difficulties that the country is facing.

Corruption has become a disease that affects (either in a big scale or in a smaller one) the main parties. There is a crisis of confidence in politics. Things cannot go on like this.

There have been laws and agreements to rein back corruption. But they have failed. There are many laws that punish corruption, but there are no rules that create a form of counterweight, that give more competences to politicians of a same party and that limit the power of the main leaders of these political organizations. Those are rules to prevent corruption from growing without any control.

Political parties have a unique role to play in any democratic system. Unlike other advanced democracies, the current Spanish legal framework does not allow the purifying of parties when necessary. Spanish political parties regulate themselves: congress and management meetings are organized whenever they serve best their leaders; the normal method to select candidates for some posts within the party and for representative posts is co-option (a method in which an association elects internally its own members); the auditing of accounts is done by a court of auditors (Tribunal de Cuentas in Spanish), a highly politicized body whose members can only access to the office with a political quota. The last year that has been audited by this body is 2007.

In more advanced constitutional democracies, political parties are highly regulated by law or, in the British case, by custom. This is not done on a whim. Political parties are not private entities such as a football club or an agricultural company, which can organize as they see fit. They are special entities that are given the monopoly of political representation and that are publicly financed. Its way of functioning is more transcendent than any other company or society. That is the reason why meeting periodicity is regulated by law, along with the methods to select members and the auditing of accounts through independent audits.

None of those regulations are applied in Spain, and this anomaly is one of the main causes of the current situation. Corrupt politicians can be found in every country, but internal democracy, sharing of competences among leaders and those who want to become leaders, and transparency obligations imposed by law allow the quick expulsion of these corrupt politicians. This is not the case in Spain. Corruption is growing; it weakens government action in a critical juncture, provokes disaffection among citizens and ends up causing a serious political and institutional crisis. But there is more. The co-option method, which is used over and over again, is an unfavorable way of selecting people that, eventually, gives power and responsibility to those who are less critical and capable. This must change immediately.

Among the many modifications that we must do in our political system, we believe that the most urgent one is that of a new electoral law (Ley de Partidos Políticos), that will regulate the activity of political parties, and will ensure their internal democracy, transparency and the control of their accounts, thus getting politics closer to the people. This is a necessary condition if we are to undertake successfully a much broader institutional reform process that will include, among others, a Justice reform, lobby regulation, and a strict separation of political and administrative posts to guarantee the independence and professionalism of the public service.

The basic points that this new law should include can be found in many European democracies. It should require specifically:

  1.  The organization of meetings at least every two years and always at a fixed date. 
  2.  Meetings of administration control bodies and internal congresses at a fixed date. The agenda should include a vote on the management of the administrators (by secret voting). Limiting the number of members, not including those who are part of the administration. 
  3.  Composition of the congress and control bodies in proportion to the number of affiliates or the votes of the party in each province or district. Limiting the term of office at least in control bodies.
  4.  Election of executive bodies, delegates in congress and members of the control bodies by secret ballot of affiliates and delegates in congress.
  5. Election of candidates for representative posts by primary elections.
  6.  Limited terms for treasurers and members in charge of accounts. Election of auditors in the different levels of the party. Annual audits carried out by independent companies before the presentation of the accounts that will be approved by the main governing bodies of the party.
  7.  Creation of independent commissions to verify costs of campaigns, and inspections to verify that electoral cost limits are being respected.

This electoral law is an organic law that cannot be subject to a popular legislative initiative. Nevertheless, the Spanish Constitution grants, in article 29, the right to petition, which we (the undersigned) appeal to in order to demand the Courts to create a new electoral law with the above mentioned characteristics.

We ask you to join us in this petition (Link):




August 2012



15M MOVEMENT: Consensus Assembly Sol 20th of may 2011

Asamblea 15M Madrid


 The Megaphone:



15M Movement – Proposals

NI - NI                          Young people have no confidence in the two major parties.  May be the end of the two-party system in Spain?

15M – Consensus Assembly Sun May 20, 2011

The following contains a set of proposals that synthesize the thousands that were collected by the Assembly held on May 20, 2011 in Camping Sol (Madrid).

As a result of the consensus reached at the Assembly held on May 20, 2011 in CAMPING SOL (Madrid), and as a result of the compilation and synthesis of the thousands of proposals received along these days, has developed an initial list of proposals. We recall that the Assembly is an open and collaborative process. This list should not be regarded as closed.

Proposals approved in the Assembly today May 20, 2011 in CAMPING SOL (Madrid).

1. Changing the Electoral Act so that the lists are open and single constituency. Obtaining seats should be proportional to the number of votes.

2. Attention to the basic and fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution such as:

2.1 Right to adequate housing , articulating a reform of the Mortgage Act for the delivery of housing in the event of default debt cancellation.

2.2 Public health , free and universal.

2.3 Free movement of persons and strengthening of a public education and secular.

3. Abolition of discriminatory and unjust laws and measures such as the Law of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education, the Aliens Act and the so-called Sinde Law .

4. Favorable tax reform to lower incomes, reform estate taxes and probate. Implementing the Tobin tax , which is levied on international financial transfers and elimination of tax havens .

5. Reform of the working conditions of the political class for their salaries Abolish lifetime. Programs and policy proposals are binding.

6. Rejection and condemnation of corruption. That is required by the Electoral Act present a clean and free of lists accused or convicted of corruption .

7. Measures plural with respect to banking and financial markets in accordance with Article 128 of the Constitution, which states that “all the wealth of the country in its different forms and whatever its ownership subordinated to the general interest.” Reducing the power of the IMF   and the ECB . Immediate   nationalization  of all the banks that have had to be rescued by the state. Tougher   controls on financial institutions and operations to prevent abuses in any form.

8. Real separation between the Church and the State, as required by Article 16 of the Constitution.

9. Participatory democracy and direct in which citizens take an active part. Access to popular media , to be ethical and truthful.

10. True regularization of working conditions and compliance is monitored by state powers.

11. Closure of all nuclear power plants and the promotion of renewable energies and free.

12. Recovery of public enterprises privatized.

13. Effective separation of executive, legislative and judicial branches.

14. Reduction in military spending , immediate closure of arms factories and greater control of the security forces and the state. As we in the peace movement “No to war”.

15. Recovery of Historical Memory and the founding principles of the struggle for democracy in our state.

16. Total transparency of accounts and financing of political parties as a measure of containment of political corruption.



To give an overview, a list of the 20 most frequent groups of proposals within a total of 14,679 proposals presented below:

  1. Abolition of privileges of politicians : 741
  2. Reform of the electoral law (not the law Hondt and districts ): 628
  3. Measures against corruption (including more control and increased penalties ): 624
  4. Public Education 551
  5. Improving the working conditions of workers : 475
  6. Regulation of banking and financial system (including bank nationalization -111 – and payment in -100 -): 434
  7. Strategies for sustainable energy : 352
  8. Direct democracy via public participation , referendums and Legislative Initiatives Popular : 330
  9. Strategies for sustainable mobility : 297
  10. Housing decent and affordable: 272
  11. Open electoral rolls : 246
  12. Public health : 244
  13. Protection and animal rights : 238
  14. Pro-public company (not including privatization and nationalization of private enterprises or privatized ): 214
  15. Measures to ensure political accountability : 195
  16. Secular education : 158
  17. Remove the monarchy : 128
  18. Separation of powers : 119
  19. Regulation of wages higher: 119
  20. Requiring political requirements : 116
  21. Transparency in administration: 105


See Link: 


Monarchies, Republics and Democracy


By Miguel Ángel Presno Linera
Law Professor at the Universidad de Oviedo, Spain.


In this text, professor Presno Linera makes an overview about the different kinds of governments, both in a republican system and in a monarchy. Professor Presno stresses the idea that republic and democracy not always go together. Thus, there are lot of European states, like Great Britain, Netherlands, or Spain, as example, that have a monarchy but they are democracies. First, Professor Presno explains the different types of monarchies have been in Spain since the liberal revolutions in the 19th century to the actual Spanish constitution. Secondly he makes an explanation on the different types of republics, in this case looking to the American republics and some of the Europeans.


Throughout history, monarchical and republican systems have followed one another in different states and have experienced different changes throughout centuries. As is well known, a simple way to differentiate between Monarchy and Republic is that in a monarchy the position of the Head of State is hereditary and held for life; whereas in a republic, the Head of State is elected, either by the citizens or by other constitutional bodies, and its position is time-limited.

According to these premises, a priori, a republic seems to be more democratic than a monarchy, since in that system, most people could hold the position of Head of State (although normally with some restrictions as being of legal age or born in the country), this position would be temporary and its appointment would depend on an election of some kind. This is true; however, democracy can have some gradations and still be a democracy. To sum up, there are lots of states, such as Great Britain, The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark or Spain, in which the monarchy does not stop them from being democratic, since in essence, a democracy involves its citizens effectively taking part in the election of the government of public affairs, but it does not really imply them to choose every state organ. Members of the judiciary (judges and other court constituents) are not usually elected directly in Europe; however, their source of legitimacy is democratic, since they apply rules, such as the Constitution and the applicable law, that have to be approve, directly or indirectly, by the citizens. Sigue leyendo